This article examines approaches to defining and measuring quality of life. Each approach to measuring the quality of life contains information that is not contained in the other measures. It describes the economic, subjective and social indicators. The strengths and weaknesses of those indicators are also analyzed.
Keywords: quality of life index; objective indicators; subjective indicators; quality of life; measuring quality of life.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17721/1728-2667.2015/169-4/8


1. Allardt E., 1993. Having, loving, being: An alternative to the Swedish model of welfare research. In: The Quality of Life. Ed. by M. Nussbaum, A. Sen. Oxford. Oxford University Press, pp. 88–94.
2. Berger–Schmitt, R. and Noll, HH., 2000. Conceptual Framework and Structure of a European System of Social Indicators. EuReporting Working Paper No. 9, Mannheim, Centre for Survey Research and Methodology
3. Brock, D., 1993, ‘Quality of life measures in healthcare and medical ethics’, in M. Nussbuam and A. Sen The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 95–132.
4. Campbell, A., 1972. “Aspiration, satisfaction and fulfillment.” in The human meaning of social change, edited by A. Campbell and P. Converse. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 441–446.
5. Campbell, A., Converse, P., Rodgers, W., 1976. The quality of American life. New York, Russell Sage Foundation.
6. Diener, E. and Diener, C., 1995, ‘The wealth of nations revisited: Income and quality of life’. Social Indicators Research, 36, pp. 275–286 DOI: 10.1007/BF01078817.
7. Diener, E. and Emmons, R.A., 1985, ‘The independence of positive and negative affect’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, pp. 71–75.
8. Diener, E., 1995, ‘A value based index for measuring national quality of life’, Social Indicators Research, 36(2), pp. 107–127 DOI: 10.1007/BF01079721.
9. Diener , E. and Eunkook, S., 1997. Measuring Quality of Life: Economic, Social and Subjective Indicators, Social Indicators Research, 40, pp. 189–216 DOI: 10.1023/A:1006859511756.
10. Drewnowski, J., 1970. Studies in the Measurement of Levels of Living and Welfare. Report 70(3). Geneva, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
11. Easterlin, R.A., 1973. Does money buy happiness? The Public Interest, 30, pp. 3–10.
12. Erikson, R., 1974. ‘Welfare as a Planning Goal’, Acta Sociologica, 17 (3), pp. 273–288.
13. Erikson, R. and Uusitalo, H., 1987. The Scandinavian Approach to Welfare Research. Swedish Institute for Social Research. Reprint Series No. 181. Stockholm, Almquist &Wiksell.
14. Erikson, R., 1993. “Descriptions of inequality: The Swedish approach to welfare research.” In: M. Nussbaum and A. Sen. Eds. The quality of life. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 67–87.
15. Hagerty, M. R, Cummins, R. A., Ferriss, A. L., Land, K., M., Alex C, Peterson, M., Sharpe, A., Sirgy, M. J., and Vogel, J., 2001. ‘Quality of Life Indexes for National Policy: Review and Agenda for Research’. Social Indicators Research, 55 (1), p. 1. DOI: 10.1023/A:1010811312332.
16. Land, K.C., 1996. ‘Social indicators and the quality of life: Where do we stand in the mid–1990s?’. SINET, 45, pp. 5–8.
17. Lane, R. E., 1996. “Quality of life and quality of persons: A new role for government?” In: Offer, A. Eds. In pursuit of the quality of life. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 256–293.
18. Amy, M., Dallimore, E. and Nelson, C., 2004. “A qualitative exploration of quality of life: Moving towards a comprehensive construct.” pp. 1–32 in Western Academy of Management Annual Conference. Anchorage.
19. Noll, HH., 2004. “Social Indicators and Quality of Life Research: Background, Achievements and Current Trends.” In: Genov, Nicolai Advances in Sociological Knowledge Over Half a Century. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2004, pp. 151–181 DOI: 10.1007/978–3–663–09215–5_7.
20. Rapley, M., 2003. Quality of life research. London, Sage Publications.
21. Titmuss, R. M., 1958. Essays on the ‘Welfare State’, London, George Allen & Unwin.
22. WHOQOL–Group, 1998. “Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL–BREF Quality of Life
Assessment.” Psychological Medicine, 28, pp. 551–558.
23. Zapf, W., 1984. Individuelle Wohlfahrt: Lebensbedingungen und wahrgenommene Lebensqualität. In: W. Glatzer and W. Zapf, Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik, Frankfurt a. M. and New York, Campus, pp.13–26.
24. Zapf, W., 2002. EuroModule, Towards a European Welfare Survey. Berlin, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
25. Eurofound, 2012. Third European Quality of Life Survey Quality of life in Europe: Impacts of the crisis. Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union. DOI: 10.2806/42471.


  • pdf 169_8
    File size: 277 kB Downloads: 257